Projected future climate-related changes include increased global air and ocean temperatures, melting sea ice and glaciers, rising sea levels, changes in precipitation, changes in storm frequency and intensity, and changes in atmospheric composition. These, in turn, have many impacts such as earlier snowmelt, increased drought, altered river flow volumes, changes in growing seasons, declining air quality, and alterations in species’ abundance, distributions, and migration patterns. Many of these impacts have already been observed, and significant additional impacts from these changes are expected to affect nearly every sector of society, including water, energy, transportation, insurance, banking, forestry, tourism, fisheries, agriculture, infrastructure, and human health. A changing climate will alter the distribution and availability of water and other natural resources that the Nation depends on. Changes in climate are also expected to exacerbate non-climatic human impacts on fisheries and marine ecosystems, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, changes in species distributions, and excess nutrients in coastal waters. Increased sea levels lead to amplified storm surge, putting low-lying areas at risk. The direct impact of climate change on commerce, transportation, society and the economy is demonstrated by retreating sea ice in the Arctic, which has made coastal communities, including tribes, highly vulnerable to winter storms and coastal inundation, forcing many to begin planning to move inland.